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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

190                                     FLOuA   INDICA.
rially less than that of the eastern, for the passes over the
principal chains are quite as lofty, though none of the peaks
attain the extreme altitude of Kanchinjanga or Dhawalagiri.
The highest mountain west of Nipal is Nanda Devi in Ku-
maon, 25,750 feet, but there are many peaks above 20,000
in all parts of the range. The last great peak is Dayamar,
north-west of Kashmir, the height of which is 20,000 feet,
beyond which the chain dips rapidly to the Indus.
The main chain of the western Himalaya, commencing near
the great peak of Kailas, north of the lake Mansarowara, runs
to the south of and parallel to the Indus, which it separates,
first from the Satlej, then from-the Chenab, and latterly from
the Jelam. To the eastward- this chain is entirely Tibetan,
but north-west of Piti it separates Lahul and Kishtwar from
the Tibetan districts of Parang and Zanskar; still further
west it separates" Kashmir from Dras, and finally terminates
at the great bend of the river Indus.
The "primary ramifications of the main chain are three in
number. One (the Cis-Satlej Himalaya) is given off* close to
the great lakes, and separates the Satlej basin from that of
the Ganges and its tributaries, terminating in the plains of
Hindos^an near Nahan. A second (the Cis-Chcnab Himalaya)
branches off from the main chain near the lake Clmmorori in
Tibet, and separates the basin *of the Chenab from those of
the Beas and Ravi, terminating in the plain of the Paivjub a
little east of Jamu; The third principal branch of the chain
separates the Chenab from the Jelam.
Our knowledge of the. Western Himalaya is so much riiorc
definite than that which we possess regarding Nipal and the
eastern provinces, that it is necessary to adopt a tr.ore minute
subdivision. The following districts will be frequently referred
to, and described in detail at a future page:-
1.  Kumaon.
2.  GarhwaL
3.  Simla; including Sirmur and Basehir and a number of
petty states, extending from the Jumna to the Satlej,